Thursday, December 18, 2014
Suction of oxygen can reduce risk of surgical fires in dental procedures
Anesthesia Progress—The oxygen-enriched environment of surgical procedures creates the risk of fire. As many as 600 operating room fires occur each year in the United States despite a decline in the use of flammable anesthetics. To ensure the safety of dental surgical procedures, a new study investigated the use of suction to prevent combustion.
Tuesday, December 16, 2014
Lower Seeding Rates of Soybean Can Be Combined with Pre-Emergence Herbicide
Weed Science—The cost of soybean seed has increased more than 225% since the introduction of glyphosate resistant varieties in 1996. This increase in price has caused growers to reduce the rate of seeding in fields. However, the lower crop seeding rate can lead to a more open canopy for weeds and increased competition with the crop.
Tuesday, December 9, 2014
Troubling tides for sea turtles? A 31-year study of loggerhead nesting signals the alarm on beach erosion and climate change
Chelonian Conservation and Biology – The central east coast of Florida is home to one of the largest nesting grounds of loggerhead turtles in the Western hemisphere. Over the period of 31 years, the Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge has had an estimated 358,243 turtle nests laid on its beach. This refuge spans some 21 km, of which, 34.5% is publicly owned, 49.8% is residential, 12.6% is commercial, and the remaining 3.1% are small gaps used for public beach access.
Monday, December 1, 2014
Temperature Effects on the Chinese Giant Salamander
Herpetologica–Since the 1950s, Chinese Giant Salamanders have experienced an 80% decline in their population sizes. More recently, this giant salamander was listed as critically endangered in 2004, making it the most vulnerable species of the Family Cryptobranchidae. This drastic decline has been caused by habitat destruction, water pollution, as well as overexploitation of its flesh and body parts.
Monday, November 17, 2014
Molecular-Assisted Alpha Taxonomy Genetic Testing Reveals Species of Red Algae
Phycologia—The use of molecular-assisted alpha taxonomy (MAAT) has helped to distinguish species of the Bossiella genus of red algae. Whereas a morphological study showed four Bossiella species in the eastern Pacific Ocean, this genetic screening revealed 17 species groups. With genetic data and further morphological study, these groups could be identified, described, and named, or assigned to existing species.
Friday, November 14, 2014
Using Plant Recruitment and Mortality to Support Rangeland Management
Rangeland Ecology & Management – Scientists have been collecting data on the different rangeland plant species since the early 1900s; these data are now being synthesized to build a predictive model of plant mortality and regeneration. The article “Incorporating Plant Mortality and Recruitment Into Rangeland Management and Assessment” in the journal Rangeland Ecology & Management provides an in-depth analysis of how information regarding plant life cycles may change rangeland management from an observatory, reactionary approach to a more predictive one.
Thursday, November 6, 2014
Bison Mating Observations Fall Short of Predicting Reproductive Success
Journal of Mammalogy – Most mammal reproduction studies aim to not only discover who the fathers are but also to learn why some males sire more offspring than others. This is complicated since many male animals, including American bison, mate with multiple females, making it difficult to estimate which males will be the most successful at passing on their genes.
Wednesday, November 5, 2014
Combinations of Herbicide Treatments and Timing Show Success Against Cogongrass
Invasive Plant Science and Management—A new study reports the successful eradication of patches of the invasive weed cogongrass in the southeastern United States. Ranked as the seventh most troublesome weed worldwide, cogongrass presents an economic and ecological threat. These results offer land managers another option in fighting this noxious weed.
Wednesday, November 5, 2014
Helmets have little effect on correcting deformed infant skulls
The Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Journal – The head of a healthy newborn has soft spots and sutures that allow the skull to grow and change shape over the first year—sometimes abnormally due to external forces. The medical community is divided on whether an infant’s asymmetrical head shape should be treated, and if so, what is the best treatment for deformed infant skulls. The authors of an article published in the current issue of The Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Journal observed children with similarly misshapen skulls to determine whether the skull shape improved without the use of a protective molding helmet.
Thursday, October 23, 2014
Annual Burns Impact Hardwood Forests Decades Later
Castanea – In the southeastern United States, large forested areas were cleared, farmed, abandoned, and then burned to keep grasses under control. Some areas have been allowed to grow back into forests in recent decades, but whether they can even partially erase the centuries of human use is uncertain.